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Dr. Caroline Ramsey Musselwhite

Monday, October 10, 2011

The Bridge Assessment

What Is The Bridge?
The Center for Literacy and Disability Studies describes The Bridge as: '
The an early literacy and language assessment framework based on observation and portfolio development/analysis.' We have found The Bridge both easy to administer and highly supportive of both progress monitoring and intervention planning.

Where Can You Download The Bridge?
The link below will lead you to the following:


• Experimental version of The Bridge Protocol
• A guide to administering The Bridge
• PowerPoint presentations for training in use of The Bridge
• A list of action verbs to support observations
• PowerPoint presentations on book / writing adaptations

Developmental Spelling Test

Why Use Developmental Spelling Tests?
• Developmental spelling helps us understand what students are hearing in a word
• Research across languages, ability groups, and SES groups supports the concept that spelling is developmental
• This is relatively easy to test, using tests of 10 - 12 well-selected words
• Developmental Spelling Tests are especially useful for students who are nonspeaking, because we can get a window into their understanding

Where Can I Find A Developmental Spelling Test?
One test available online is the 'Monster Test' by Richard Gentry. This 10-word test includes words such as 'monster', 'united', and 'hiked.' A scoring guide is included, showing how to analyze spellings, to determine the developmental level (from precommunicative to conventional. The link to that test is below:

Musselwhite & Hanser (2011, Write to Talk CD) suggest additional strategies for analysis such as:
• % onsets phonetically correct
• % vowels represented

Using Developmental Spelling Test Results
Results of the developmental spelling tests are great for:
• progress monitoring
• pre-post to determine success of an intervention
In addition to administering a development spelling test, teachers and therapists can analyze student writing in context, using these strategies, and use results to guide instruction. For example, if the student has 83% vowels represented, but only 17% vowels correct, it is clear that s/he is beginning to 'get the vowel rule' (every word has a vowel), but needs instruction on how to determine the correct vowel.